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Buddhism, Christianity, Islam originated

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Users questions:Founder of the religion, birthplace, and the historical background.
Experts answer:(1) the emergence and development of Christian Christianity originated in Palestine, the Jews. AD 3 years, Jews living in the land conquered by Rome. The brutal oppression of the Romans, the Jews had many years of an uprising 66-132 AD, after the failure was even more brutal repression. The failure of the uprising, the oppressed people feel powerless, they place their hopes in religion, looking forward to the emergence of a messiah, come to the kingdom of heaven on earth, to save people's suffering. This reflects the struggle of their life in the real disappointment in the spirit instead seek a way out from the religion to escape their desperate situation. According to historical material, after BC in Asia Minor, the lower parts of the Jewish residents of the emergence of a popular "Messiah" will be coming sects. Christianity is actually coming from the evolution of this sect. The earliest Christians mostly slaves, slaves and poor people were released. They set up in the city, the organization of small-scale to the cross as a symbol, the implementation of the joint estate. After these small organizations from the United Church. Beginning, because against the Roman rule, but by the repression. Later, as society, the upper classes took part in the Christian, the afterlife hopes to promote and encourage loyalty to the state, submissive to his master. Thus, in 313 AD, the Roman emperor Constantine issued the "Edict of Milan" to the Church of Christ in a lawful status. In 380 AD, declared Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire. With the status of state religion, so the Christian church, believers are found in various places under the jurisdiction of the Roman Empire. Christianity has become the rule of the exploiting class tools. At that time the Romans, Constantine, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem church in a prominent position 5. (2) the development of Christianity after the Roman Empire and the division. In the Christian within three or four centuries from the beginning, gradually formed the East (Constantinople) West (Rome) two centers. Orthodox Church in the Byzantine period is the state religion of the emperor, led directly by the emperor. Appointment and removal of the emperor to the Archbishop of the Church, the Synod was held, the meeting approved the decision of religion to explain the doctrine. In 1453, the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Turks were attacked and destruction. West Asia, North Africa and the Balkans and other places have become the Ottoman Empire. As the Ottoman Empire, Islam, Orthodox Church in the region has been greatly weakened. Grand Duchy of Moscow from the Russian Orthodox Church took the opportunity to control the Archbishop of Constantinople, the formation of independent churches, the Russian Orthodox Church, and the self-proclaimed head of the Orthodox Church. Tsar Peter the reform of the Church, the Church under the leadership of the secular officials as part of their country. This is the Byzantine Church and State continues to focus on the traditional system embodied in Russia. Russian Orthodox Church after the October Revolution in 1917, the state issued a decree separating church and state, national education system to an end. Xian Orthodox believers about 1 million people, the geographical distribution of the former Soviet Union than outside, mainly in Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, former Yugoslavia and Finland. Western Roman Empire against the barbarians, Yao Yaoyu fall, the emperor Kovalam Neanderthal nous III, attempts to use Christianity to save the Empire, the Bishop of Rome in 455, Leo I, on the request should be granted to power to rule West Rome Church, forced the western Bishop of obedience. Bishop of Rome became the Pope. The move was opposed to the eastern region. Western Roman Empire, the Pope is out of the secular leaders were under the jurisdiction of the small country. After the establishment of the Papal States, the Pope also is a secular monarch. But the Eastern Roman Empire was still an independent existence, so the church is still attached to the emperor. The two sides gradually intensified conflicts, from mutual accusations of heresy, to 1054, taught each other out the door, and thus cut off all contacts, separate into two major sects. The 16th century occurred in Western religious reform within the church, and gradually differentiate some new sect, called the "Protestant." Nordic countries such as the Lutheran, France, Switzerland and Scotland, Calvinist, Anglican England (National Church) and so on. This will be split into three sects of Christianity: the Pope of Rome under the control of the church, known as the Catholic Church; reformed Christianity, known as the Protestant or Protestant (Romance); to Constantinople as the center of the Greek Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church. Later, the Roman Catholic Spain and the Portuguese colonial rule in many parts of activities spread throughout the world. Its main distribution areas, in Europe, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Austria, Poland; Latin America and North America, Quebec, Canada; Asia Philippines; Africa, Gabon and Burundi. Believers around the world about 6 million, the number of all religions in the world in the first place. Protestant in Europe, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Germany. Since the British colonial relations have spread abroad to the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand. According to statistics, the existing church about 3.5 million. With the Catholic and Orthodox Protestant difference is that many religious organizations without uniform and strict. The main denominations are Lutheran, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Congregational and Methodist and so on. There are major religious baptism, confession, Eucharist and marriage and so on. Baptism is a church ceremony. Officiating can be those who give Shouli pour a small amount on the amount of water, or by the whole body immersed in the pool Shouli moment. It is believed that this is the sacrament of Jesus standing, may pardon church's "original sin." Confession of sin is committed Christians will report out to the priest, and that repentance, asking "God pardon." The Eucharist is consecrated bread. When doing the Mass, the officiating person, first-served "Eucharist" and "Holy Blood" (wine), and then let the faithful for the Eucharist. This is the doctrine known as the representative body and blood of Jesus for all giving up and out of impunity. Marriage means the believers in the church marriage ceremony, presided over by the priest, the two sides in the Information, the affirmative answer to the formal blessing to the parties after the marriage. Christian holidays are Christmas, Easter, Pentecost and so on. Christmas is a commemoration of the so-called birth of Jesus Christ, the Church provides for the annual Dec. 25. Due to the different Orthodox calendar, the calendar equivalent of December 25 Jan. 6 or 7 days. Easter is the commemoration of the so-called after the crucifixion of Jesus is the "resurrection" of the festival, full moon after the vernal equinox each year provided the first Sunday. Pentecost is the so-called "resurrection" of Jesus after the first 40 days, "heaven", the first 50 days sent "Holy Spirit" Whitsunday; disciples received the Holy Spirit began preaching after. It provides 50 days after Easter is Pentecost. 2. Islam Islam is one of the world's three major religions. Its nearly 600 million followers. "Islam" is the meaning of obedience. Its followers as "Muslim" means to obey Allah and the prophet. Islam in China also known as Islam. The teaching is divided into two main Sunni and Shiite sects. Its distribution mainly in West Asia, North Africa, Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. (1) the emergence and development of Islam. Islam in the 7th century originated in the Arabian Peninsula. At that time, the Byzantine and Persian empires to fight two major trade routes carried out in the long war that severely damaged the local economy, land abandoned and commercial channel infarction, population collapse, urban depression, social contradictions are sharp, and all sectors need to find a new way to get rid of the difficulties at that time. The founder of Islam Mohammed (570-632) is actually a synthesis of Judaism, Christianity and religion, the original teachings of the peninsula, claims of "Allah" (Allah) revelation to him in the world "Allah" " Biography warning "," good news letter "and" Charitable beings. " After years of effort, AD 622, Muhammad moved from Mecca religious center in Medina, established a theocratic religious organization. Muhammad died, in the election of successors to teach, called "Caliph" (meaning the successor). It uses "die fighting for Allah, death may go to heaven" and beat the soldiers to share spoils of war and other tenets of foreign military forces. Around the pagan inhabitants of the poll tax and the levy heavier land tax and other measures that they believe in Islam. Which Islam spread. After four caliph (632-661) to the territory, including not only the Arabian peninsula, and the influence has reached Asia, Africa and Asia, west to Egypt and North Africa, east to Persia. Late 13th century, Asia Minor, the rise of Muslim Ottoman Turks. The late 14th century, the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, 1453 elimination of the occupation of Constantinople the Byzantine Empire, and built across Europe, Asia, Africa and three continents empire. Thus, brought Islam to the Balkans and Turkey. (2) Islamic sects. Within the Islam Muhammad died, the issue around the caliph successors engaged in a fierce struggle, the result, as a result of the opposition political parties have religious denominations, there are two main Sunni and Shia sects, the struggle continued. Sunni and secular focus on practical knowledge and believes in the power of family and social groups. Sunni Islam is one of the largest Christian sect, its distribution throughout Europe, Asia and Africa continents. Shiite stressed idealism and the supernatural, believe infallibility of the Imam. Shiite followers of Islam in a small faction, mainly in Iran. (4) Islam's teachings and ceremonies. "Koran" is a basic classical Islam. Arabic "Koran" means "read." "Koran" was originally a missionary when Mohammed to the name of Allah the remarks, in his death, compiled by hand. Islam the "Koran" as a sacred scriptures, the highest living standards and the highest legislative basis. Therefore, problems often encountered in the "Koran" in the find answers. "Koran" is not, then had the other from the words and deeds of Muhammad to find criteria. To this end, to Muhammad, "Allah" than the name of the compilation of comments as "Hadith." In daily life, there are strict fasting provisions, such as quit drinking from the dead, blood, and pork, prohibition of alcohol, inhumation, in the festival, the main al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha there. Ramadan Eid al-Fitr means the expiry of 29, "look to see the new moon" the next day is the Eid al-Fitr (Islamic calendar for the October 1). Eid al-Adha is the Islamic calendar's December 10. Bathing costumes of the day, will be held ceremony, call each other, give each other to show to commemorate the slaughter of cattle and sheep. 3. Buddhism, Buddhist people in the world's three major religions in the smaller, only 2.5 million people, located in East and Southeast Asia. The teaching points Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. (1) The Rise and Decline of Buddhism. 6-5 century BC, Buddhism originated in ancient India. Its founder was noted \u8FBE\u591A\u4E54\u8FBE\u6469. Buddha is a Buddhist honorific title of his, its meaning is "Shakya family of saints." Before the 6th century to the mid-4th century start-up period of Buddhism, this time to its founding Buddha taught his disciples that heritage. Around the mid-4th century BC, the Buddhist doctrine and discipline within the knowledge because of disagreement, is divided into many education groups, into the school of the Buddhist period. Before and after the 1st century AD, Mahayana popular, and is divided into the concept of school and Yu Ka School. Part of the 7th century later to form sects and esoteric Brahmanism. Buddhism in the early 13th century Indian disappeared, until only a slight revival of the 19th century. (2) Mahayana Buddhism and Hinayana Buddhism. The main factions of Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism and Hinayana Buddhism. The difference between Mahayana and Theravada teachings, not only in theory, is also reflected in religious practice. View of the Buddha, the Buddha as a leader of the Hinayana, Mahayana and put him as a magical wand, almighty God. Methods and results in practice, the pursuit of personal liberation Theravada, Mahayana is that all beings should be Purdue, Buddha degree of the world as the highest goal. Cosmology from a philosophical point of view, Theravada advocates, "I have space law", while Mahayana is that "law defeat me." Mahayana popular in China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Vietnam. Because it is the northward spread of Buddhism from India, also known as Northern Buddhism. Theravada Buddhism prevalent in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and other countries. Because it is the spread of Buddhism from India to south, also known as Southern Buddhism. In China's Tibet, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and other regions to become the form of Lamaism, a part of Chinese Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, said. It accounted for in the 7th century Tibetan Buddhist General Songtsan start to the early 13th century, Tsongkhapa reform by gradually stronger. Tibetan Buddhism has many sects of their unique and strict monastic organization and learning system. Buddhist festival of the Buddha's Birthday Festival (lunar calendar April eighth day), Nirvana Day (lunar calendar on February 15, refers to the Buddha's death day), the Buddha into the Road Day (lunar calendar December eighth day.) Laba Road, also known as Buddha Day, the day has become a folk festival in China, will eat the rice porridge.
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